Tag Archives: gone with the wind

GONE WITH THE WIND (1939) Temporarily Pulled From HBO Max To Allow For Proper Context–A History


When HBO Max announced that it would temporarily remove Gone With the Wind from its platform, in order to place a statement in front of it putting the film’s content into the proper context, it set off a firestorm of controversy online and in the media. Some decry the decision as censorship. Others believe that the movie speaks for itself and doesn’t need context. Still others lauded the decision, asserting that any and all attempts to educate viewers should be encouraged. Today, The Washington Post reported that the film would be back on the platform this week, with an African-American Studies scholar speaking at the front of it.

Controversy is not new to Gone With the Wind–it came under scrutiny for its depictions of slavery and race even before the film was released. Black-led organizations warned producer David O. Selznick, as early as pre-production, that he should tread carefully with his adaptation of Margaret Mitchell’s novel. It included offensive language and stereotypical depictions that would not be tolerated by the Black moviegoing public. Indeed, Selznick listened to the warnings about language (due in part to fears of protest that would certainly carry over from a planned re-release of Birth of a Nation the same year), but was walking a thin tightrope between the need for honest depictions of Black people and the financial need for the film to play in the merciless Jim Crow South. When the film was finally released, it received a storm of controversy from the Black press. Many Black critics praised Hattie McDaniel’s layered and nuanced performance as Mammy, and (somewhat surprisingly by today’s standards) praised the film’s restraint. The Crisis, the quarterly journal of the NAACP, wrote that Gone With the Wind “eliminated practically all the offensive scenes and dialogue” from the original book.

But Carlton Moss, writing for The Daily Worker, disagreed. The film was “sugar-smeared and blurred by a boresome Hollywood love story,” he stated, and he condemned Mammy’s devotion to the O’Haras, who “helped to keep her people enchained for centuries.” Black activists picketed and actively protested the film across the United States, with shouts of “Negroes were never docile slaves!” and “Gone With the Wind glorifies slavery!” Picketers carried signs outside theaters that were designed to elicit intense responses from the public.


A protest of Gone With the Wind in Washington, D.C.

As the film has aged, and became the cultural phenomenon that it is, the scrutiny and controversy continues. Theaters have cancelled showings of the film after public outcries of protest, followed by accusations of censorship for the cancellations. This latest controversy due to the move by HBO Max is only a continuation of the trend, not something new.

In this era where entertainment is literally at our fingertips, and access to Gone With the Wind is as easy as a push of a few buttons, I feel that it is dangerous and irresponsible to allow such an inherently controversial film to be viewed in such a way, without proper context. The tradeoff for such rapid-fire consumption of information is that for many people, there is no time for critical thinking, or analysis of the what, why, and how of the material they consume. In the interest of public safety in this era, I fully support HBO Max’s decision to pull Gone With the Wind until proper context can be provided.

I also urge them to add content not just by a scholar of African-American Studies, but a scholar of the African-American experience on film. A few years ago at the TCM Classic Film Festival, I attended a wonderful panel on Gone With the Wind led by Dr. Donald Bogle. Bogle is the pre-eminent historian on Black Hollywood and an instructor at New York University and UPenn. He is an impressive speaker and personally knew many of the biggest figures of African-American classic Hollywood, and his perspective would lend a personal dimension to the film. Also on the Gone With the Wind panel was Dr. Jacqueline Stewart, instructor at University of Chicago and current host of Silent Sunday Nights on TCM. Her knowledge of classic Hollywood in general, as well as her expertise on the African-American experience on film, would also be an excellent addition to HBO Max’s reinstatement of Gone With the Wind.



Donald Bogle and Jacqueline Stewart

I want to close on a positive note regarding Gone With the Wind. Yesterday was the birthday of Hattie McDaniel, “Mammy” in the film, who was an actor, a poet, a songwriter, an intellectual, and activist. She was one of the most prolific supporting players in Hollywood, though her roles rarely deviated from that of a maid. When she was selected for an Academy Award nomination, the Black sorority Sigma Gamma Rho endorsed her and wrote to David O. Selznick: “We trust that discrimination and prejudice will be wiped away in the selection of the winner of this award, for without Miss McDaniel there would be no Gone With the Wind.” McDaniel won, and became the first African-American to receive an Academy Award.




Oscars Through the Years: Historic Winners and Oscar Overlooks


Olivia de Havilland accepts her Best Actress Oscar for The Heiress (1949).

Tonight is Oscar night. As Los Angeles prepares for an evening of glamor, style, and nightmarish street closures (it once took me an hour to walk to the store one block away when I was in Hollywood on Oscar night), we look back on the films and performances that most moved us this year, and honor them with the industry’s highest award.

This year’s Oscar lineup has had its fair share of criticism, and a shakeup of Academy voting rules in the face of this criticism has further rocked the industry. This is a post all its own, and a very worthy topic for analysis on a classic film blog due to the members the new rules affect, but I would like to save that discussion for after the Oscars. Today, I would like to focus on celebrating the history of the awards, historic wins, historic snubs, and those for whom Oscar was always just out of reach.


JANET GAYNOR: The first performer to win Best Actress

At the first Academy Award ceremony in 1929, held in the Blossom Room at the Roosevelt Hotel, Janet Gaynor was named the Academy’s first Best Actress for her work in three films–Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans, Seventh Heaven, and Street Angel. The entire ceremony, hosted by Douglas Fairbanks, lasted for 15 minutes and all the awards had been announced ahead of time.

Here is Janet Gaynor in those three films.


Notice that this first Oscar ceremony came right on the cusp of sound technology. The Jazz Singer, the first film to have a synchronized dialogue track, was disqualified from the ceremony because the organizers felt that it was unfair to have sound films compete with silents.


Historic win

HATTIE MCDANIEL: The first African-American to win an Oscar

For her performance as Mammy in Gone With the Wind (1939), Hattie McDaniel won the first Academy Award presented to an African-American performer. The aftermath of Gone With the Wind had not been easy for McDaniel. Jim Crow laws had been raging in the South for over 40 years, and Hattie McDaniel had suffered huge amounts of discrimination based around where and how she could travel with the film. She was unable to attend the gala premiere in Atlanta, and even at the Oscars ceremony where she was an odds-on favorite to win, she was unable to sit with the rest of her Gone With the Wind co-stars, instead having to walk from the back of the room to accept her award.

Hattie McDaniel’s legendary Oscar has since been lost. After her death, she willed the statue to Howard University, where it was rumored to have been stolen and thrown in the Potomac River during civil rights protests in the 1960s. But an investigation into its whereabouts gives more credence to the idea that inadequate intake procedures at the university during the time of its arrival was responsible for its being misplaced.

JOAN FONTAINE: Wins for Suspicion


After having been defeated by Ginger Rogers in Kitty Foyle the previous year when she was nominated for Rebecca, Joan Fontaine ended up winning for Suspicion (1941) during the Academy Award ceremony in 1942. She was up against her sister, Olivia de Havilland, nominated for Hold Back the Dawn.

Fontaine’s win for Suspicion is historic in several ways. With her win, she became the sole person who has ever won an acting Oscar for a Hitchcock film. In addition, she and Olivia de Havilland are the only siblings who have ever won lead acting Oscars. Olivia won her first Oscar just a few years later, for To Each His Own, and a second three years later for The Heiress.


Olivia de Havilland hugs sister Joan Fontaine on Oscar night when Joan won for Suspicion.

Oscar Overlooks



Though nominated four times for the Academy Award, Barbara Stanwyck never won a competitive Oscar. One of the most chameleonic actresses on the screen, her nominations reflected her versatility and range, but each time she lost out to another actress. Here are some clips from each of Barbara Stanwyck’s nominated performances, along with the winning performances.

1937: Barbara Stanwyck nominated for Stella Dallas

LOST TO: Luise Rainer, The Good Earth


1941: Barbara Stanwyck nominated for Ball of Fire

LOST TO: Joan Fontaine, Suspicion


1944: Barbara Stanwyck nominated for Double Indemnity

LOST TO: Ingrid Bergman, Gaslight


1948: Barbara Stanwyck nominated for Sorry Wrong Number

LOST TO: Jane Wyman, Johnny Belinda


Finally, in 1982, she got her due.


While Stanwyck was at least given the honor of being nominated, the great Myrna Loy never even received a nomination. It is considered one of the Academy’s greatest oversights, considering Myrna Loy’s long and illustrious career, and especially her role in the huge Oscar winner The Best Years of Our Lives in 1946, and her much-beloved portrayal of Nora Charles in The Thin Man.

The Academy finally gave Myrna an honorary award, at least 70 years late, which she accepted with a simple “You’ve made me very happy. Thank you very much.”

Thanks for reading, and be sure to watch the Oscars this evening at 5 PM Pacific time! And if you’re in Los Angeles, stay off those roads.


An Interview with Kendra Bean, Author of VIVIEN LEIGH: AN INTIMATE PORTRAIT

By Lara Gabrielle Fowler

Mysterious, ethereal, and tremendously charming, Vivien Leigh is about as captivating as it comes. It is easy to simply marvel at her beauty, the likes of which the entertainment industry had never seen before and, in my opinion, has never seen since. Her stunning looks would be enough to secure Vivien’s place as one of the most compelling performers ever onscreen. But when one digs deeper into the life and career of the woman who was Scarlett O’Hara, a new person emerges–a sensitive, intelligent woman who fought intense demons in her personal life while maintaining a powerful inner core strength that came through in her life and her work.

It has been 25 years since the last major Vivien Leigh biography, and earlier this month classic film fans were treated to a unique and very special portrait of the star. Kendra Bean, the owner of vivandlarry.com and resident Vivien Leigh expert in the online classic film community, has written Vivien Leigh: An Intimate Portrait, a work that can be described as a labor of love, a glorious posthumous gift to Vivien Leigh. There have been several high profile biographies of the actress, the books by Alexander Walker and Hugo Vickers have left Kendra with some massive shoes to fill. But fill them she does, and with literally thousands of photographs and personal documents, Vivien Leigh: An Intimate Portrait gives readers an angle on Vivien’s life that has not been seen in previous books. In addition, Kendra is the first biographer to conduct research in the Laurence Olivier Archives, allowing this book to cover aspects of Vivien Leigh’s marriage to Laurence Olivier that have been previously unknown.

Vivien Leigh with husband Laurence Olivier.

I first met Kendra several years ago, before Backlots existed. I remember her preparation for her move from California to London, where she now resides, and I was lucky enough to be able to attend A Weekend With the Oliviers, Kendra’s 2011 tour of London through the eyes of the Oliviers. I also feel a special personal connection to this book, as I have witnessed its growth from just a seed planted straight through to its triumphant release in early October. Needless to say, I am very proud of Kendra for what has proven to be a work as beautiful as Vivien herself.

Here is a recent interview I conducted with Kendra. You can purchase your copies of the book by clicking here!


Without a doubt, you are the most passionate and knowledgeable Vivien Leigh aficionado I know. When did you first discover your love for Vivien, and what was it that most attracted you to her?
Haha, thanks! I discovered Vivien during my first viewing of Gone With the Wind when I was 18. I was so taken by the film that I started reading anything I could that would tell me more about it, which included several Vivien biographies. She had what the playwright John Osborne described as a “magic alchemy;” a mixture of great beauty, an interesting life, and an intriguing personality. I’ve said this in another interview, but it’s so true, so I’ll say it again: sometimes when I read biographies of famous people, I feel like my curiosity has been satisfied. But I read all the Vivien books and still wanted to know more! I find her to be mysterious, magnetic, variously admirable and sympathetic, and on some level relatable.
You have the distinction of being the first Vivien Leigh biographer to delve into the Laurence Olivier archives, giving you access to such extremely sensitive documents as her medical records and files. The book quotes several letters and private conversations, especially in regard to Vivien’s manic depression. Are these things you found in the Olivier archives?
Most of these letters and documents were found in the Olivier Archive, and some of them were in the Jack Merivale papers at the BFI. The medical-related documents didn’t cover her entire medical history, but they were enough to get some real insight into her bipolar disorder and how it was treated over the years. Of particular interest were the documents relating to the infamous Elephant Walk incident in 1953, and its aftermath (discussed in chapter 6 of the book). I felt like this was such a crucial point in Vivien’s life, but it always seemed to be such a grey area, full of speculation and rumor.
What was the most surprising thing you learned about Vivien while working on this book?
 I’m not sure that I found anything really that surprising about Vivien because her qualities as a person and as a performer (both positive and negative) have been discussed and written about often over the years. Most of the material I looked at reinforced those qualities. There weren’t any huge revelations as to who she was or anything like that. What emerged instead were interesting details that I felt helped me better understand her career and personal life. Also, because these particular archives belonged to other people and Vivien was included as part of a broader context, there was a lot of material pertaining to how other people (both fans and those close to her) felt about her. I thought that was really great because it created a broader perspective. It wasn’t just how she felt about things happening in her life; it was also about the impact she left on others, and I hadn’t read a lot of it before.
You are also an expert on Vivien Leigh’s marriage to Laurence Olivier. In your research, what new insights did you gain into their marriage? Did your perception about them and their relationship go through any changes as you researched the book?
My perceptions didn’t change, per-se, I just got a more intimate understanding of some of the ins and outs of their marriage. Today it seems fashionable to talk about things like Laurence Olivier’s negative personality traits, and how he was horrible to her, but actually it became obvious going through all of that stuff that they were really close, that he cared a lot about her. I was surprised by how much concern Olivier expressed for Vivien in letters to other people, how often he told people he was proud of her performances, how much effort he put into making sure she was taken care of when she was going through really bad times with her mental troubles during their marriage, and how much he kept tabs on her after their divorce – that part really surprised me.
Before beginning this book, what adjectives would you have used to describe Vivien? Now that your book is finished, have those adjectives changed?
Mercurial; headstrong; passionate; vulnerable; significant. I wouldn’t change any of these.